Population of Burundi 2017


Current population of Burundi is 11,466,756 people (July 2017 est.).

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)


noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian

Ethnic Groups

Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000


Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (alongLake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official) and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9%

note: data represent language read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is widespread (2008 est.)


Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)

Demographic Profile

Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees,results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.

Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.

Age Structure

0-14 years: 45.57% (male 2,628,767/female 2,596,719)
15-24 years: 19.15% (male 1,095,213/female 1,100,314)
25-54 years: 28.74% (male 1,643,319/female 1,651,679)
55-64 years: 3.92% (male 212,074/female 237,324)
65 years and over: 2.63% (male 129,482/female 171,865) (2017 est.)

Dependency Ratios

total dependency ratio: 89.6
youth dependency ratio: 84.8
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.1 (2015 est.)

Median Age

total: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.2 years (2016 est.)

Population Growth Rate

3.3% (2017 est.)

Birth Rate

41.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death Rate

8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net Migration Rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population Distribution

one of Africa’s most densely populated countries; concentrations tend to be in the north and along the northern shore of Lake Tanganyika in the west; most people live on farms near areas of fertile volcanic soil


urban population: 12.7% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 5.48% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major Urban Areas – Population:

BUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)

Sex Ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother’s Mean Age at First Birth

21.3 years

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate

712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

total: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth

total population: 60.5 years
male: 58.8 years
female: 62.3 years (2016 est.)

Total Fertility Rate

5.99 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

31.7% (2012)

Health Expenditures

7.5% of GDP (2014)

Hospital Bed Density

1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking Water Source

urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population

urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation Facility Access

urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population

urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate

1.1% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS

84,000 (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths

2,900 (2016 est.)

Major Infectious Disease

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate

2.1% (2014)

Children Under the Age of 5 Years Underweight

29.1% (2011)

Education Expenditures

5.4% of GDP (2013)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)

School Life Expectancy (Primary to Tertiary Education)

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)

Child Labor – Children Ages 5-14

total number: 433,187
percentage: 19% (2005 est.)