Population of Chad 2017


Current population of Chad is 12,075,985 people (July 2017 est.).


noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Ethnic Groups

Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 29.9%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.7%, Arab 9.6%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7.5%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.6%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Tupuri/Kera 2.1%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.9%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.2%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.4%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)


French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects


Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)

Demographic Profile

Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care.

Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.

More than 300,000 refugees from Sudan and almost 70,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.

Age Structure

0-14 years: 43.02% (male 2,634,817/female 2,560,790)
15-24 years: 21.46% (male 1,267,944/female 1,324,115)
25-54 years: 28.62% (male 1,574,782/female 1,881,183)
55-64 years: 3.88% (male 206,627/female 261,586)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 150,364/female 213,777) (2017 est.)

Dependency Ratios

total dependency ratio: 100.2
youth dependency ratio: 95.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)

Median Age

total: 17.6 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)

Population Growth Rate

1.9% (2017 est.)

Birth Rate

35.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death Rate

13.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net Migration Rate

-3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population Distribution

the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated


urban population: 22.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major Urban Areas – Population:

N’DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)

Sex Ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother’s Mean Age at First Birth

17.9 years

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate

856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

total: 87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 92.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth

total population: 50.2 years
male: 49 years
female: 51.5 years (2016 est.)

Total Fertility Rate

4.34 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

5.7% (2014)

Health Expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2014)

Physicians Density

0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Drinking Water Source

urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.8% of population

urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation Facility Access

urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 12.1% of population

urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate

1.3% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS

110,000 (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths

2,800 (2016 est.)

Major Infectious Disease

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate

6.6% (2014)

Children Under the Age of 5 Years Underweight

28.8% (2015)

Education Expenditures

2.9% of GDP (2013)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 22.3%
male: 31.3%
female: 14% (2016 est.)

School Life Expectancy (Primary to Tertiary Education)

total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 6 years (2011)

Child Labor – Children Ages 5-14

total number: 1,475,960
percentage: 48% (2010 est.)