Population of Djibouti 2017


Current population of Djibouti is 865,267 people (July 2017 est.).


noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic Groups

Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)


French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar


Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Demographic Profile

Djibouti is a poor, predominantly urban country, characterized by high rates of illiteracy, unemployment, and childhood malnutrition. More than 75% of the population lives in cities and towns (predominantly in the capital, Djibouti). The rural population subsists primarily on nomadic herding. Prone to droughts and floods, thecountry has few natural resources and must import more than 80% of its food from neighboring countries or Europe. Health care, particularly outside the capital, islimited by poor infrastructure, shortages of equipment and supplies, and a lack of qualified personnel. More than a third of health care recipients are migrants because the services are still better than those available in their neighboring home countries. The nearly universal practice of female genital cutting reflects Djibouti’s lack of gender equality and is a major contributor to obstetrical complications and its high rates of maternal and infant mortality. A 1995 law prohibiting the practice has never been enforced.

Because of its political stability and its strategic location at the confluence of East Africa and the Gulf States along the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, Djiboutiis a key transit point for migrants and asylum seekers heading for the Gulf States and beyond. Each year some hundred thousand people, mainly Ethiopians and some Somalis, journey through Djibouti, usually to the port of Obock, to attempt a dangerous sea crossing to Yemen. However, with the escalation of the ongoing Yemen conflict, Yemenis began fleeing to Djibouti in March 2015, with more than 35,000 arriving by April 2016. Most Yemenis remain unregistered and head for Djibouti City rather than seeking asylum at one of Djibouti’s three spartan refugee camps. Djibouti has been hosting refugees and asylum seekers, predominantly Somalis and lesser numbers of Ethiopians and Eritreans, at camps for 20 years, despite lacking potable water, food shortages, and unemployment.

Age Structure

0-14 years: 31.14% (male 135,151/female 134,312)
15-24 years: 21.32% (male 86,820/female 97,656)
25-54 years: 39.03% (male 140,242/female 197,484)
55-64 years: 4.75% (male 18,593/female 22,515)
65 years and over: 3.76% (male 14,559/female 17,935) (2017 est.)

Dependency Ratios

total dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 50.1
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4
potential support ratio: 15.6 (2015 est.)

Median Age

total: 23.5 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 24.9 years (2016 est.)

Population Growth Rate

2.2% (2017 est.)

Birth Rate

23.4 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death Rate

7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net Migration Rate

5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population Distribution

most densely populated areas are in the east; the largest city is Djibouti, with a population over 600,000; no other city in the country has a total population over 50,000


urban population: 77.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 1.52% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major Urban Areas – Population:

DJIBOUTI (capital) 529,000 (2015)

Sex Ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate

229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

total: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth

total population: 63.2 years
male: 60.7 years
female: 65.8 years (2016 est.)

Total Fertility Rate

2.31 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

19% (2012)

Health Expenditures

10.6% of GDP (2014)

Physicians Density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital Bed Density

1.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking Water Source

urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 64.7% of population
total: 90% of population

urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 35.3% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation Facility Access

urban: 59.8% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 47.4% of population

urban: 40.2% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 52.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate

1.3% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS

8,600 (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths

<1000 (2016 est.)

Major Infectious Disease

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2016)

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate

8.5% (2014)

Children Under the Age of 5 Years Underweight

29.8% (2012)

Education Expenditures

4.5% of GDP (2010)

School Life Expectancy (Primary to Tertiary Education)

total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2011)

Child Labor – Children Ages 5-14

total number: 13,176
percentage: 8% (2006 est.)