Population of Gabon 2017


Current population of Gabon is 1,772,255 people (July 2017 est.).

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)


noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic Groups

Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Bapounou, Nzebi, Obamba); other Africans and Europeans, 154,000, including 10,700 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality


French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi


Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 13.7%, other Christian 32.4%, Muslim 6.4%, animist 0.3%, other 0.3%, none/no answer 5% (2012 est.)

Demographic Profile

Gabon’s oil revenues have given it one of the highest per capita income levels in sub-Saharan Africa, but the wealth is not evenly distributed and poverty is widespread. Unemployment is especially prevalent among the large youth population; more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. With a fertility rate still averaging more than 4 children per woman, the youth population will continue to grow and further strain the mismatch between Gabon’s supply of jobs and the skills of its labor force.

Gabon has been a magnet to migrants from neighboring countries since the 1960s because of the discovery of oil, as well as the country’s political stability and timber, mineral, and natural gas resources. Nonetheless, income inequality and high unemployment have created slums in Libreville full of migrant workers from Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, and elsewhere in West Africa. In 2011, Gabon declared an end to refugee status for 9,500 remaining Congolese nationals to whom it had granted asylum during the Republic of the Congo’s civil war between 1997 and 2003. About 5,400 of these refugees received permits to reside in Gabon.

Age Structure

0-14 years: 41.9% (male 373,307/female 369,237)
15-24 years: 20.46% (male 181,823/female 180,837)
25-54 years: 29.52% (male 262,511/female 260,673)
55-64 years: 4.36% (male 37,178/female 40,014)
65 years and over: 3.76% (male 28,664/female 38,011) (2017 est.)

Dependency Ratios

total dependency ratio: 67.4
youth dependency ratio: 59.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2015 est.)

Median Age

total: 18.6 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.8 years (2016 est.)

Population Growth Rate

1.9% (2017 est.)

Birth Rate

34.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death Rate

13 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net Migration Rate

-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population Distribution

the relatively small population is spread in pockets throughout the country; the largest urban center is the capital of Libreville, located along the Atlantic coast in the northwest


urban population: 87.6% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major Urban Areas – Population:

LIBREVILLE (capital) 707,000 (2015)

Sex Ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother’s Mean Age at First Birth

20.3 years

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate

291 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

total: 45.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth

total population: 52.1 years
male: 51.6 years
female: 52.5 years (2016 est.)

Total Fertility Rate

4.39 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

31.1% (2012)

Health Expenditures

3.4% of GDP (2014)

Hospital Bed Density

6.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking Water Source

urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 93.2% of population

urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 6.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation Facility Access

urban: 43.4% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 41.9% of population

urban: 56.6% of population
rural: 68.5% of population
total: 58.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate

3.6% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS

48,000 (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths

1,500 (2016 est.)

Major Infectious Disease

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate

15.8% (2014)

Children Under the Age of 5 Years Underweight

6.5% (2012)

Education Expenditures

2.7% of GDP (2014)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.2%
male: 85.3%
female: 81% (2015 est.)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24

total: 35.7%
male: 30.5%
female: 41.9% (2010 est.)