Population of Somalia 2017

Population

Current population of Somalia is 11,031,386 people (July 2017 est.).

note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2017 est.)

Nationality

noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali

Ethnic Groups

Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)

Languages

Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English

Religions

Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)

Demographic Profile

Somalia scores very low for most humanitarian indicators, suffering from poor governance, protracted internal conflict, underdevelopment, economic decline, poverty, social and gender inequality, and environmental degradation. Despite civil war and famine raising its mortality rate, Somalia’s high fertility rate and large proportion of people of reproductive age maintain rapid population growth, with each generation being larger than the prior one. More than 60% of Somalia’s population is younger than 25, and the fertility rate is among the world’s highest at almost 6 children per woman – a rate that has decreased little since the 1970s.

A lack of educational and job opportunities is a major source of tension for Somalia’s large youth cohort, making them vulnerable to recruitment by extremist and pirate groups. Somalia has one of the world’s lowest primary school enrollment rates – just over 40% of children are in school – and one of world’s highest youth unemployment rates. Life expectancy is low as a result of high infant and maternal mortality rates, the spread of preventable diseases, poor sanitation, chronic malnutrition, and inadequate health services.

During the two decades of conflict that followed the fall of the SIAD regime in 1991, hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes. Today Somalia is the world’s third highest source country for refugees, after Syria and Afghanistan. Insecurity, drought, floods, food shortages, and a lack of economic opportunities are thedriving factors.

As of 2016, more than 1.1 million Somali refugees were hosted in the region, mainly in Kenya, Yemen, Egypt, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Uganda, while more than 1.1 million Somalis were internally displaced. Since the implementation of a tripartite voluntary repatriation agreement among Kenya, Somalia, and the UNHCR in 2013, nearly 40,000 Somali refugees have returned home from Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp – still houses to approximately 260,000 Somalis. The flow sped up rapidly after the Kenyan Government in May 2016 announced its intention to close the camp, worsening security and humanitarian conditions in receiving communities in south-central Somalia. Despite the conflict in Yemen, thousands of Somalis and other refugees and asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa risk their lives crossing the Gulf of Aden to reach Yemen and beyond (often Saudi Arabia). Bossaso in Puntland overtook Obock, Djibouti, as the primary departure point in mid-2014.

Age Structure

0-14 years: 43.15% (male 2,376,526/female 2,383,060)
15-24 years: 19.04% (male 1,059,608/female 1,040,343)
25-54 years: 31.43% (male 1,795,355/female 1,671,421)
55-64 years: 4.2% (male 230,027/female 233,257)
65 years and over: 2.19% (male 93,736/female 148,053) (2017 est.)

Dependency Ratios

total dependency ratio: 97.4
youth dependency ratio: 92.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
potential support ratio: 18.8 (2015 est.)

Median Age

total: 17.9 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 17.8 years (2016 est.)

Population Growth Rate

2% (2017 est.)

Birth Rate

39.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death Rate

13.1 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net Migration Rate

-6.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population Distribution

distribution varies greatly throughout the country; least densely populated areas are in the northeast and central regions, as well as areas along the Kenyan border; most populated areas are in and around the cities of Mogadishu, Marka, Boorama, Hargeysa, and Baidoa

Urbanization

urban population: 40.5% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 4.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major Urban Areas – Population:

MOGADISHU (capital) 2.138 million; Hargeysa 760,000 (2015)

Sex Ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate

732 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

total: 96.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth

total population: 52.4 years
male: 50.3 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)

Total Fertility Rate

5.8 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Physicians Density

0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Drinking Water Source

improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 31.7% of population

unimproved
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation Facility Access

improved:
urban: 52% of population
rural: 6.3% of population
total: 23.6% of population

unimproved
urban: 48% of population
rural: 93.7% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate

0.4% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS

24,000 (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths

1,700 (2016 est.)

Major Infectious Disease

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate

3.9% (2014)

Children Under the Age of 5 Years Underweight

23% (2009)

Education Expenditures

NA

Child Labor – Children Ages 5-14

total number: 1,148,265
percentage: 49% (2006 est.)