Population of Zimbabwe 2017

Population

Current population of Zimbabwe is 13,805,084 people (July 2017 est.).

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)

Nationality

noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic Groups

African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)

Languages

Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)

Religions

Protestant 82.7% (includes Apostolic 41.8%, Pentecostal 25.2%, other 15.7%), Roman Catholic 6.7%, other Christian 4.6%, traditional religion 0.6%, Muslim 0.4%, other 0.1%, none 4.9% (2015 est.)

Demographic Profile

Zimbabwe’s progress in reproductive, maternal, and child health has stagnated in recent years. According to a 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, contraceptive use, the number of births attended by skilled practitioners, and child mortality have either stalled or somewhat deteriorated since the mid-2000s. Zimbabwe’s total fertility rate has remained fairly stable at about 4 children per woman for the last two decades, although an uptick in the urban birth rate in recent years has causeda slight rise in the country’s overall fertility rate. Zimbabwe’s HIV prevalence rate dropped from approximately 29% to 15% since 1997 but remains among the world’s highest and continues to suppress the country’s life expectancy rate. The proliferation of HIV/AIDS information and prevention programs and personal experience with those suffering or dying from the disease have helped to change sexual behavior and reduce the epidemic.

Historically, the vast majority of Zimbabwe’s migration has been internal – a rural-urban flow. In terms of international migration, over the last 40 years Zimbabwe has gradually shifted from being a destination country to one of emigration and, to a lesser degree, one of transit (for East African illegal migrants traveling to South Africa). As a British colony, Zimbabwe attracted significant numbers of permanent immigrants from the UK and other European countries, as well as temporary economic migrants from Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Although Zimbabweans have migrated to South Africa since the beginning of the 20th century to work as miners,the first major exodus from the country occurred in the years before and after independence in 1980. The outward migration was politically and racially influenced;a large share of the white population of European origin chose to leave rather than live under a new black-majority government.

In the 1990s and 2000s, economic mismanagement and hyperinflation sparked a second, more diverse wave of emigration. This massive out migration – primarily to other southern African countries, the UK, and the US – has created a variety of challenges, including brain drain, illegal migration, and human smuggling and trafficking. Several factors have pushed highly skilled workers to go abroad, including unemployment, lower wages, a lack of resources, and few opportunities for career growth.

Age Structure

0-14 years: 38.9% (male 2,658,563/female 2,711,017)
15-24 years: 20.47% (male 1,383,337/female 1,442,738)
25-54 years: 31.9% (male 2,207,012/female 2,196,996)
55-64 years: 4.27% (male 233,771/female 355,738)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 251,968/female 363,944) (2017 est.)

Dependency Ratios

total dependency ratio: 79.5
youth dependency ratio: 74.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)

Median Age

total: 20.6 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 20.8 years (2016 est.)

Population Growth Rate

1.6% (2017 est.)

Birth Rate

34.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death Rate

10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net Migration Rate

-8.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Population Distribution

Aside from major urban agglomerations in Harare and Bulawayo, population distribution is fairly even, with slightly greater overall numbers in the eastern half

Urbanization

urban population: 32.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major Urban Areas – Population:

HARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)

Sex Ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother’s Mean Age at First Birth

20.5 years

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010/11 est.)

Maternal Mortality Rate

443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

total: 25.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life Expectancy at Birth

total population: 58 years
male: 57.3 years
female: 58.7 years (2016 est.)

Total Fertility Rate

3.98 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

66.9% (2014)

Health Expenditures

6.4% of GDP (2014)

Physicians Density

0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital Bed Density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking Water Source

improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 76.9% of population

unimproved
urban: 3% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation Facility Access

improved:
urban: 49.3% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 36.8% of population

unimproved
urban: 50.7% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate

13.5% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS

1.3 million (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS – Deaths

30,000 (2016 est.)

Major Infectious Disease

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate

8.4% (2014)

Children Under the Age of 5 Years Underweight

11.2% (2014)

Education Expenditures

8.4% of GDP (2014)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 86.5%
male: 88.5%
female: 84.6% (2015 est.)

School Life Expectancy (Primary to Tertiary Education)

total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2013)

Unemployment, Youth Ages 15-24

total: 16.5%
male: 11.7%
female: 21.1% (2014 est.)